28.12.2022 258


While the population over the age of 75 constituted 75% of the total population in the world in 2000, the population over the age of 85 is expected to increase five times by the middle of the 21st century. The prevalence of chronic diseases increases with age. It is known that the incidence of various diseases increases in individuals aged 65 and over. In this age group, special situations may impair the quality of life and invite other diseases.

Old age is not a disease with standard complaints. The risk of developing certain conditions or diseases increases with age. Disease complaints can be reduced with regular life and controls. Passing off every complaint as 'old age' delays the treatment.

In this article, we will try to give brief information by focusing on diseases that are more common in old age and methods of preventing diseases that increase with aging.

  1. Dementia

Dementia is a progressive and fatal disease characterized by memory impairment, progressive decline in activities of daily living, various psychiatric symptoms and behavioral disorders. Dementia is one of the diseases that old people should pay attention to. It is often confused with Alzheimer's from time to time. Alzheimer's is the most common cause of dementia.

The main causes of dementia are:

  • Dementia is caused by damage to brain cells.
  • The damage inhibits the ability of brain cells to communicate with each other.
  • When brain cells cannot communicate normally, thinking, behavior and emotions can be affected.
  • Most of the changes in the brain that cause dementia are permanent and worsen over time.
  1.  How Is Dementia Prevented?

Some risk factors for dementia, such as age and genetics, cannot be changed. But researchers continue to explore the impact of other risk factors on brain health and prevention of dementia.

It is thought that adopting multiple healthy lifestyle options, including a healthy diet, not smoking, regular exercise and cognitive stimulation can reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.

  1. Osteoporosis

Decreased bone density in older people is a problem that requires a lot of attention. As we age, the bones weaken and lose their old healthy structure. This weakness is considered normal up to a certain point. But if the bone becomes extremely weak, this isn't normal. This makes the bones extremely fragile. Bones become brittle and very weak. Because everything that keeps it strong begins to decline. This condition is called osteoporosis.

The health condition called osteoporosis, causes bones to become weak and brittle. Even mild stress such as falling or bending over or coughing can cause a fracture. Osteoporosis-related fractures most commonly occur in the hip, wrist, or spine.

Here are some of the things you can do to prevent osteoporosis:

  • Consider calcium intake for bone health and consume enough milk and dairy products.
  • Avoid smoking and alcohol.
  • Increase your physical activity in daily life.
  • Do not neglect your regular health checks and consult your doctor and have your bone density measurement done on time.

In the treatment of osteoporosis, various drugs (those that reduce bone destruction and increase production) can be started in patients who are evaluated by blood and urine tests and found suitable. However, not every osteoporosis drug is suitable for every patient. These treatments are decided by the doctor's examinations.

  1. Presbycusis (Age-Related Hearing Loss)

Aging, which can be seen in all organs as age progresses, is also seen in the hearing organ, and the sense of hearing weakens day by day. Age-related hearing loss is something most of us are familiar with from everyday life. One of the most important hearing problems that can occur due to aging is called presbycusis.

The main causes of age-related hearing loss are:

  • The vessels leading to the ear lose their properties and cannot carry blood as before,
  • Loss of hearing nerve with age,
  • Loss of feature and function of the hearing center in the brain.

The age of appearance of presbycusis varies from person to person. Although this condition usually begins in the early 40s, it usually becomes apparent later in life.

  • The main complaint in these patients is hearing loss, which gradually progresses with age, affecting both ears.
  • Hearing loss may be accompanied by tinnitus and balance disorders.
  • Presbycusis can lead to social isolation and depression.
  • It is also associated with dementia processes.

It is not possible to treat or restore hearing loss. One of the things that can be done to reduce hearing loss is assistive devices called hearing aids are used.

If the hearing in one ear is relatively preserved, it is appropriate to use a device for the deaf ear. However, in bilateral hearing loss, if the hearing loss of one ear is not enough to benefit from the device, it is necessary to use a device for the better hearing ear.

  1. Problems With The Digestive System

Complaints such as pain, discomfort, defecation problems, nausea and vomiting in any part of the digestive system are among the common symptoms of digestive system diseases. Like the whole of our body, the digestive system slows down as we age and can disturb the person.

Some of the digestive problems that increase in prevalence with age can be listed as follows.

  1.  Gastritis

Gastritis is a common term for types of gastroenteritis. Gastritis is often a direct result of infection with the type of bacteria that causes stomach ulcers.

  • It starts with swelling in the stomach, pain in the abdomen, nausea and vomiting, and then manifests itself with a state of tension.
  • The sick person constantly experiences a sour taste in his mouth and his sense of taste is not as sensitive as a normal individual.
  • Pain and aching sensations appear in the upper part of the abdomen, reaching unbearable points.

Although it is often confused with acid reflux, gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach, and acid reflux is a problem related to the upward flow of stomach acid.

Before starting the treatment of gastritis, the cause of the disease is also examined. Gastritis due to stomach acid and bacteria is treated with different drugs.

  1.  Stomach Ulcer

The damage to the stomach tissue due to various reasons, the formation of damage and wounds in the damaged part due to gastric juice and digestive secretions are called gastric ulcers.

Ulcer discomfort takes first place among stomach problems and ailments affecting the digestive system. The reason for ulcers is that the stomach acid is too intense and causes abrasions in the stomach.

The most common cause of the disease is the infection of the bacterium "helicobacter pylori", but apart from this, it also occurs due to different reasons such as:

  • Genetic predisposition,
  • Stress,
  • Excessive consumption of acidic foods,
  • Alcohol and cigarette use,
  • Excessive use of coffee.

Thanks to drug treatment, it is desired to destroy the bacteria in the stomach and regulate acidity. Surgical procedures are very rarely performed in the treatment of ulcers. In addition, ulcers occur due to the stress state of the person. For this reason, physicians advise the person to stay away from stress.